- Design and Sketch
- Project
- Pipes
- Discharges
- Input Points
- Reference Nodes
- Grid General
- Booster BFP
- Grid Ranges and Trees
- Grid Main Pipes
- Grid Elevations
- Grid Op Sprinklers
- Grid Numbering

Wherever you want to analyse. If you make it the mains, or the tank, then the pump becomes a booster pump and the program will calculate the required pump pressure increase if you select the third “calculate” option on the project screen. If you make the input point the pump then the pipe losses on the suction side of the pump must be separately calculated and added to it.

No – the program does no conversions – the units are selected on the project screen. However, if you enter all your pipe lengths as mm e.g. 2400, 3600, etc while in fact the units of length are set to m, when the results are there will be huge pressure drops since 2400 becomes 2.4 km of pipe etc. This can be fixed simply by changing the units of length to mm on the project screen without the need to re-enter all the pipe lengths.

If a pipe will have flow in it when the chosen sprinklers are operating then it must be included in the network. If pipes definitely have no flow ( e.g. feeding non-operational sprinklers), then they need not be entered.

Some suggestions:

Size of job – 20 pipes or 2000 pipes

Pipes and Nodes may use different sequences g. pipes 5000-6000 and Nodes 1-1000

One node of each pipe may be pipe number g. Pipe 233 has at one end node 233

Large pipes (less of them) – Large Numbers e.g. 100, 110, 120 etc.

Results list pipes and nodes by ascending number – Input point may be 1 (first) or 9999 (last)

Keep operating sprinklers together

Sprinklers first! 1 – 20

Auto Numbering – right clicking on similar pipes column

A system that minimises mistakes

Size of job – 20 pipes or 2000 pipes

Pipes and Nodes may use different sequences g. pipes 5000-6000 and Nodes 1-1000

One node of each pipe may be pipe number g. Pipe 233 has at one end node 233

Large pipes (less of them) – Large Numbers e.g. 100, 110, 120 etc.

Results list pipes and nodes by ascending number – Input point may be 1 (first) or 9999 (last)

Keep operating sprinklers together

Sprinklers first! 1 – 20

Auto Numbering – right clicking on similar pipes column

A system that minimises mistakes

Different scenarios can be tried by checking some sprinklers and/or hydrants as operating in different runs or alternatively the lengths of some pipes may be changed to “move” the area of operation.

This version of the program allows the entry of hydrants directly with their required flow and minimum pressure. This is turned into an effective K factor for the most remote hydrant ; others are treated as “fixed discharges”. That is they are discharging the minimum flow unless the “hydrants Flow” just above the Node No. is set to variable in which case they are all treated as a K factor with those closer to the input point discharging more than the minimum.

Fixed discharges need only be used in special circumstances as with a fixed discharge the entered discharge occurs regardless of the available pressure which may be to low to ensure the required flow is actually discharged – something the user must always check. This can be useful in cases where large industrial ring mains are analysed with separate sub-sections treated as fixed discharges but the user must always check available pressures.

Prepare a drawing or sketch with:

Show Area of operation (operating sprinklers)

Ignore pipes without flow

Determine pipe diameters and mark on drawing

Mark Input points and Pumps

Mark Node Nos.

Mark Pipe Nos.

Elevation of all Nodes

Any Fittings apart from elbows and tee’s

Determine flow and k-factor for each operating sprinkler or nozzle

Pipe Lengths (scale or dimension)

Show Area of operation (operating sprinklers)

Ignore pipes without flow

Determine pipe diameters and mark on drawing

Mark Input points and Pumps

Mark Node Nos.

Mark Pipe Nos.

Elevation of all Nodes

Any Fittings apart from elbows and tee’s

Determine flow and k-factor for each operating sprinkler or nozzle

Pipe Lengths (scale or dimension)

The “best” depends on the user’s assessment.

**FIXED** – A fixed pressure at an input point typically a tank OR if the required input pressure is being determined then a guess pressure (typically 1000 kPa) in which case only Pressure 1 is entered.

If the input pressure is not a constant, but a curve (e.g. if the input is a pump, the pressure will drop off as the flow increases), then the curve can be described in one of three ways:

**LINEAR –** signifies a pump or variable water supply pressure being entered as a series of (at least two) points on a curve of pressure vs flow. The program linearly interpolates between the entered points. For better accuracy, the points should be closest in the vicinity of the operating point.

**CURVE** – signifies a pump or variable water supply pressure but in this case, a series of coefficients are calculated from the entered values of flow and pressure for a polynomial fit to the points. All eight points must be entered. This may be a slightly more accurate method of describing a pump curve than the LINEAR method but remember that the curve will not necessarily pass through all points (least squares fit).

The polynomial takes the form:

p = a + bq + cq^{2} + dq^{3}

where p is the pressure and q is the flow and

**Q18** – signifies a variable water supply pressure where the pressure between each pair of entered points is proportional to the flow to the power 1.85. This is typically the data supplied by a water supply authority.

No – the program does no conversions – the units are selected on the project screen. However if you enter all your pipe lengths as mm e.g. 2400, 3600, etc while in fact the units of length are set to m, when the results are there will be huge pressure drops since 2400 becomes 2.4 km of pipe etc. This can be fixed simply be changing the units of length to mm on the project screen without the need to re-enter all the pipe lengths.

No, this data has NO affect on the calculations. It is simply a record of the design data used to calculate the flow for each of the discharging sprinklers.

In most systems (with only one input point) all check valves are open in normal operation and so they need not be operating. (The equivalent length for check valves assumes they are open). Only in special cases, such as multiple operating inputs, are operating check valves necessary. In this case the first pipe from each input point contains a check valve which would only operate if the pressure at the input point was so low that the flow was out of the network. In this case (with check valve operation “yes”) the check valve would operate and the program would remove the pipe containing the check valve from the calculation thus preventing flow out of the network.

For most pipes it does not matter which end is A and which is B. It does not make any difference if the flow is from A to B or B to A. In the results for the pipes the nodes for each pipe are listed in the direction of flow. However whenever some specific fittings or devices are included in a pipe it is important that a node A and node B are in the direction of flow and hence pressure change from A to B. These specific fittings include Booster Pumps, Backflow Preventers, Operating check valves, pressure reduction devices OC, OF, OD, OP, PZ.

If you select the same pipe material as the default pipe material (at the top of the column) then it goes blank since blank on any pipe means that it takes the default material.

Left click on the “other fittings” column for that pipe then Right click and a list of the fittings available in the program for that pipe material will appear – User defined fittings are shown at the bottom of the form.

ASAM is steel pipe to AS1074 medium weight and that standard only goes to 150mm diameter. If you need 200 mm pipe you will have to select a different standard e.g. AS40 for schedule 40 ansi which has sizes up to 1050mm.

To save selecting all the sprinklers on the pipes screen nodes – enter the sprinklers first on the discharges screen. Provided the sprinklers are continuously numbered e.g. 20, 21, 22, ….33 then they may be entered using the “+” button and set the default elevation, flow, K factor and pressure exponent. When these nodes are entered on pipes on the pipes screen they will automatically come up as “sprinkler” as each pipe line is completed.

Some suggestions:

- Size of job – 20 pipes or 2000 pipes
- Pipes and Nodes may use different sequences g. pipes 5000-6000 and Nodes 1-1000
- One node of each pipe may be pipe number g. Pipe 233 has at one end node 233
- Large pipes (less of them) – Large Numbers e.g. 100, 110, 120 etc.
- Results list pipes and nodes by ascending number – Input point may be 1 (first) or 9999 (last)
- Keep operating sprinklers together
- Sprinklers first! 1 – 20
- Auto Numbering – right-clicking on similar pipes column
- A system that minimises mistakes

Yes providing that you use the correct 2 character identifier separated by spaces e.g. GV for Gate Valve.

Sprinklers and spray nozzles are designed to produce certain spray characteristics. It is generally accepted in the fire protection industry to use the discharge coefficient (or k factor) when determining the flow through a sprinkler or nozzle. i.e. Q = k x Pn where the pressure exponent n is taken as 0.5. Highly engineered sprays, as opposed to standard deflection type sprinklers, often contain complex internal and external geometries to form the distinctive spray patterns. In order to account for the different flow characteristic of these types of discharges, the pressure exponent can be considered as an input variable rather than a constant. See help or F1 for typical examples.

No – Only if you want the program to check that the max pressure is not exceeded – in which case a warning message is included.

Provided the sprinklers are continuously numbered e.g. 20, 21, 22, ….33 then they may be entered using the “+” button and set the default elevation, flow, K factor and pressure exponent. When these nodes are entered on pipes on the pipes screen they will automatically come up as “sprinkler” as each pipe line is completed.

The “best” depends on the users assessment.

**FIXED** – A fixed pressure at an input point typically a tank OR if the required input pressure is being determined then a guess pressure (typically 1000 kPa) in which case only Pressure 1 is entered.

If the input pressure is not a constant, but a curve (e.g. if the input is a pump, the pressure will drop off as the flow increases), then the curve can be described in one of three ways:

**LINEAR** – signifies a pump or variable water supply pressure being entered as a series of (at least two) points on a curve of pressure vs flow. The program linearly interpolates between the entered points. For better accuracy the points should be closest in the vicinity of the operating point.

**CURVE** – signifies a pump or variable water supply pressure but in this case a series of coefficients are calculated from the entered values of flow and pressure for a polynomial fit to the points. All eight points must be entered. This may be a slightly more accurate method of describing a pump curve than the LINEAR method but remember that the curve will not necessarily pass through all points (least squares fit).

The polynomial takes the form:

p = a + bq + cq2 + dq3

where p is the pressure and q is the flow and

**Q18** – signifies a variable water supply pressure where the pressure between each pair of entered points is proportional to the flow to the power 1.85. This is typically the data supplied by a water supply authority.

If the input pressure is not a constant, but a curve (e.g. if the input is a pump, the pressure will drop off as the flow increases), then the curve can be described in one of three ways:

The polynomial takes the form:

p = a + bq + cq2 + dq3

where p is the pressure and q is the flow and

The Input point is entered as a FIXED pressure and this represents the minimum depth of water available at the tank exit (500mm water is 5kPa), the user can enter the loss coefficient of an abrupt exit from the tank. The pressure loss of this fitting is added to the pressure loss of the pipe from the input point (tank).

It must be a Reference node and must have two and only two pipes connected.

This is all the Grid types available but the number of range pipes may be varied in each type. You may be only have one, two or three main pipes as illustrated on the buttons. However, these ‘standard’ grids may be XPANDED so that each pipe is individually listed and may therefore be changed.

Those sprinklers operating in the grid may be selected on the operating sprinklers tab. In addition, more pipes and operating sprinklers may be added using the original ‘pipes’ and discharge’ screens provided these pipes and sprinkler numbers do not clash with the numbers in the grid.

An input point with a pump curve is taking the pump as the input point. Any pipes and therefore pressure losses on the suction side of the pump must then be separately calculated and added to find the total pump requirement. A booster pump is a pump further down the network such that the pipes on the suction side of the pump are included. Note that input points are at nodes where booster pumps occur “in” pipes. This is often best done by having a short length of pipe with the pump and say two gate valves included.

Back flow preventers (BFP) are entered on the “Booster BFP” tab and up to 8 pairs of flow/pressure points are added from the manufacturers data.

This is simply the number of sprinklers on the range pipes.

The diagram on the right illustrates the dimensions and diagram changes when you click on a particular line.

Not usually as HYENA⁺ will include the standard T’s at the end of the range and trees. Remember that any fitting added by you will be added to each range or tree pipe!!

Simply leave the line blank and the program assumes that the sprinklers are screwed directly into the range and tree pipes.
If droppers are added they can either be a fixed length (ie following the slope of the range pipes) or putting the sprinklers at a fixed elevation. In this latter case, the dropper length is calculating the vertical distance between the nominated elevation and the elevation of the range and tree pipes enforced on the elevation tab.

There will always be one less main pipe than the number of rows!

While many grids have the same main pipe diameter from one end to the other, in the case of trees it often occurs that as the main pipe approaches the remote end, it’s diameter drops. This can be done by listing the number of MPL of each diameter starting from the bottom up.

Usually NO. HYENA⁺ will include all the fittings (principally Tees) which are needed. Also remember that any fitting added to a main pipe will be inserted into all those main pipes.

In a grid, the range pipes are often close to the roof running parallel to the beams. The main pipes run across and below the beams. The short lengths of vertical pipe connecting the main pipes to each range pipe are known in HYENA grids as ‘Rising Main Pipes’.

You do not enter the length of the RMP’s. In the RMP data you enter, the elevation of each pipe (measure from the datum). Later on the elevation tab, the elevation of the range of the tree pipes is entered and the length of the RMP is taken as the difference in elevation of these pipes.

Just set the horizontal elevation of Row 1 and each subsequent row defaults to the previous one. Hence all will be horizontal.

Select the sloping option for the first row and enter the 3 heights and two dimensions to specify the range. By default this will then apply to all other rows.

Just click and drag the cursor from the top left corner to the bottom right corner of the rectangular area containing the operating sprinklers. Having chosen the actual operating sprinklers the min flow and K factor (and pressure exponent if not the usual 0.5) need to be entered in the floating form. Should an extra sprinklers be operating then select these and add a second line of data on the floating form. The colour of the sprinkler X on the diagram corresponds to the coloured block at each end of the data lines.

If it is required that the program determines the most remote (unfavourable) area of operation for the selected sprinklers, the area of the GRID to be considered for this is entered on the Remote line on the floating form, by windowing the area required.
The program will then calculate the hydraulically most remote region for the nominated operating (discharging) sprinkler heads by moving the operating sprinklers around the GRID over the remote area specified.
The most remote region is defined as the sprinkler locations that produces the least flow from any of the operating sprinklers.